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  • Chapter 3. Describing and Publishing (WSDL and UDDI)

    Explain the use of WSDL in Web services, including a description of WSDL's basic elements, binding mechanisms and the basic WSDL operation types as limited by the WS-I Basic Profile 1.0a.

    WSDL is an XML-based language that allows formal XML desriptions of the interfaces of Web services:

    • Interface information describing all publicly available functions.

    • Data type information for all message requests and message responses.

    • Binding information about the transport protocol to be used.

    • Address information for locating the specified service.

    WSDL benefits:

    • It is an interface description is a contract between the server developers and the client developers (like Java interface represents a contract between client code and the actual Java object).

    • It has formal descriptions which allows tool support, e.g. code template generators, integrate new services with little or no manual code.

    WSDL language can be described as having two layers:

    1. The service definition layer describes abstract properties:

      • data types

      • message types

      • operations

      • services

    2. The binding layer describes concrete properties:

      • protocols

      • data formats

    The definitions element MUST be the root element of all WSDL documents. It defines the name of the web service, declares multiple namespaces used throughout the remainder of the document. An actual WSDL document consists of a set of definitions of the following kinds:

    • types - Contains XML Schema element and type definitions. The types element describes all the data types used between the client and server. WSDL is not tied exclusively to a specific typing system, but it uses the W3C XML Schema specification as its default choice. If the service uses only XML Schema built-in simple types, such as strings and integers, the types element is not required.

    • message - Consistes of either a number of named parts typed by XML Schema elements, or a single part typed by a XML Schema type. The message element describes a one-way message, whether it is a single message request or a single message response. It defines the name of the message and contains zero or more message part elements, which can refer to message parameters or message return values.

    • portType - describing a set of operations, each being either:

      • one-way: The endpoint receives an input message. (NOTE: The WS-I BP 1.0 restricts the valid wsdl:operations to one-way and request-response operations).

        
        <wsdl:definitions .... > 
          <wsdl:portType .... > *
            <wsdl:operation name="nmtoken">
              <wsdl:input name="nmtoken"? message="qname"/>
            </wsdl:operation>
          </wsdl:portType >
        </wsdl:definitions>
        					
        											

      • request-response: The endpoint receives an input message and then responds with an output message (like RPC - Remote Procedure Call). (NOTE: The WS-I BP 1.0 restricts the valid wsdl:operations to one-way and request-response operations).

        
        <wsdl:definitions .... > 
          <wsdl:portType .... > *
            <wsdl:operation name="nmtoken" parameterOrder="nmtokens">
              <wsdl:input name="nmtoken"? message="qname"/>
              <wsdl:output name="nmtoken"? message="qname"/>
              <wsdl:fault name="nmtoken" message="qname"/>*
            </wsdl:operation>
          </wsdl:portType >
        </wsdl:definitions>
        					
        											

      • solicit-response: The endpoint sends an output message and then receives an input message (NOTE: A DESCRIPTION MUST NOT use Solicit-Response and Notification type operations in a wsdl:portType definition - R2303 - BP 1.0).

        
        <wsdl:definitions .... > 
          <wsdl:portType .... > *
            <wsdl:operation name="nmtoken" parameterOrder="nmtokens">
              <wsdl:output name="nmtoken"? message="qname"/>
              <wsdl:input name="nmtoken"? message="qname"/>
              <wsdl:fault name="nmtoken" message="qname"/>*
            </wsdl:operation>
          </wsdl:portType >
        </wsdl:definitions>
        					
        											

      • notification: The endpoint sends an output message (NOTE: A DESCRIPTION MUST NOT use Solicit-Response and Notification type operations in a wsdl:portType definition - R2303 - BP 1.0).

        
        <wsdl:definitions .... > 
          <wsdl:portType .... > *
            <wsdl:operation name="nmtoken" parameterOrder="nmtokens">
              <wsdl:output name="nmtoken"? message="qname"/>    
            </wsdl:operation>
          </wsdl:portType >
        </wsdl:definitions>
        					
        											

      The portType element combines multiple message elements to form a complete one-way or round-trip operation. For example, a portType can combine one request and one response message into a single request/response operation, most commonly used in SOAP services. Note that a portType can (and frequently does) define multiple operations.

    • binding - Selects communication protocol and data formats for each operation and message. The binding element describes the concrete specifics of how the service will be implemented on the wire. WSDL includes built-in extensions for defining SOAP services, and SOAP-specific information therefore goes here. (NOTE: For interoperability the WS-I BP 1.0 requires that all messages must be sent using the SOAP 1.1 protocol over an HTTP transport as described in Section 3 of the WSDL 1.1 spec. The SOAP messages must be in either "document-literal" or "rpc-literal" form). The WS-I BP 1.0 requires that a wsdl:binding and its wsdl:portType have the same list of wsdl:operations. A perfect matching between the two lists is established through a 1-1 and onto relation from the wsdl:binding to the wsdl:portType. The wsdl:binding should completely bind all operations within a wsdl:portType.

    • service - Describes a collection of named ports, each associated with a binding and a network address. The service element defines the address for invoking the specified service. Most commonly, this includes a URL for invoking the SOAP service.

    The simplified structure of a WSDL document is:

    
    <definitions> <!-- root WSDL element -->
    
      <types>
        <!-- defines data types to be transmitted -->
      </types>
    
      <message>
        <!-- defines messages to be transmitted -->
      </message>
    
      <portType>
        <!-- defines operations (functions) to be supported -->
      </portType>
    
      <binding>
        <!-- defines how will the messages be transmitted on the wire -->
      </binding>
      
      <service>
        <!-- defines location of web service -->
      </service>
       
    </definitions> 
    				
    					

    WSDL document grammar:

    
    <wsdl:definitions name="nmtoken"? targetNamespace="uri"?>
    
        <import namespace="uri" location="uri"/>*
    
        <wsdl:documentation .... /> ?
    
        <wsdl:types> ?
            <wsdl:documentation .... />?
            <xsd:schema .... />*
            <-- extensibility element --> *
        </wsdl:types>
    
        <wsdl:message name="nmtoken"> *
            <wsdl:documentation .... />?
            <part name="nmtoken" element="qname"? type="qname"?/> *
        </wsdl:message>
    
        <wsdl:portType name="nmtoken">*
            <wsdl:documentation .... />?
            <wsdl:operation name="nmtoken">*
               <wsdl:documentation .... /> ?
               <wsdl:input name="nmtoken"? message="qname">?
                   <wsdl:documentation .... /> ?
               </wsdl:input>
               <wsdl:output name="nmtoken"? message="qname">?
                   <wsdl:documentation .... /> ?
               </wsdl:output>
               <wsdl:fault name="nmtoken" message="qname"> *
                   <wsdl:documentation .... /> ?
               </wsdl:fault>
            </wsdl:operation>
        </wsdl:portType>
    
        <wsdl:binding name="nmtoken" type="qname">*
            <wsdl:documentation .... />?
            <-- extensibility element --> *
            <wsdl:operation name="nmtoken">*
               <wsdl:documentation .... /> ?
               <-- extensibility element --> *
               <wsdl:input> ?
                   <wsdl:documentation .... /> ?
                   <-- extensibility element -->
               </wsdl:input>
               <wsdl:output> ?
                   <wsdl:documentation .... /> ?
                   <-- extensibility element --> *
               </wsdl:output>
               <wsdl:fault name="nmtoken"> *
                   <wsdl:documentation .... /> ?
                   <-- extensibility element --> *
               </wsdl:fault>
            </wsdl:operation>
        </wsdl:binding>
    
        <wsdl:service name="nmtoken"> *
            <wsdl:documentation .... />?
            <wsdl:port name="nmtoken" binding="qname"> *
               <wsdl:documentation .... /> ?
               <-- extensibility element -->
            </wsdl:port>
            <-- extensibility element -->
        </wsdl:service>
    
        <-- extensibility element --> *
    
    </wsdl:definitions>
    				
    					

    Example of simple WSDL (SOAP 1.1 Request-Response via HTTP):

    
    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    
    <definitions name="StockQuote"
    
    targetNamespace="http://example.com/stockquote.wsdl"
              xmlns:tns="http://example.com/stockquote.wsdl"
              xmlns:xsd1="http://example.com/stockquote.xsd"
              xmlns:soap="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/soap/"
              xmlns="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/">
    
        <types>
           <schema targetNamespace="http://example.com/stockquote.xsd"
                  xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/10/XMLSchema">
               <element name="TradePriceRequest">
                  <complexType>
                      <all>
                          <element name="tickerSymbol" type="string"/>
                      </all>
                  </complexType>
               </element>
               <element name="TradePrice">
                  <complexType>
                      <all>
                          <element name="price" type="float"/>
                      </all>
                  </complexType>
               </element>
           </schema>
        </types>
    
        <message name="GetLastTradePriceInput">
            <part name="body" element="xsd1:TradePriceRequest"/>
        </message>
    
        <message name="GetLastTradePriceOutput">
            <part name="body" element="xsd1:TradePrice"/>
        </message>
    
        <portType name="StockQuotePortType">
            <operation name="GetLastTradePrice">
               <input message="tns:GetLastTradePriceInput"/>
               <output message="tns:GetLastTradePriceOutput"/>
            </operation>
        </portType>
    
        <binding name="StockQuoteSoapBinding" type="tns:StockQuotePortType">
            <soap:binding style="document" transport="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/http"/>
            <operation name="GetLastTradePrice">
               <soap:operation soapAction="http://example.com/GetLastTradePrice"/>
               <input>
                   <soap:body use="literal"/>
               </input>
               <output>
                   <soap:body use="literal"/>
               </output>
            </operation>
        </binding>
    
        <service name="StockQuoteService">
            <documentation>My first service</documentation>
            <port name="StockQuotePort" binding="tns:StockQuoteBinding">
               <soap:address location="http://example.com/stockquote"/>
            </port>
        </service>
    
    </definitions>
    				
    					

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