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ORACLE Tutorials

Oracle Questions - 1

Oracle Questions - 1

1.    List all the valid database start-up option?

STARTUP MOUNT, STARTUP NOMOUNT, and STARTUP FORCE.
STARTUP NOMOUNT is used for creating a new database or for creating new control files. STARTUP MOUNT is used for performing specific maintenance operations such as renaming data files, enabling or disabling archive logging, renaming, adding or dropping redo log files, or for performing a full database recovery. Finally, STARTUP FORCE is used to start a database forcefully, (if you have problems starting up an instance.) STARTUP FORCE shuts down the instance if it is already running and then restarts it.
    
2.    Which two values from the V$SESSION view are used to terminate a user session?

The session identifier (SID) and the serial number (SERIAL #) uniquely identify each session and both are needed to kill a session.
Ex. SQL > ALTER SYSTEM KILL SESSION ?SID?,? SERIAL #?;

3.    To use operating system authentication to connect the database as an administrator, what should the value of the parameter REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE be set to?

The value of the REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE parameter should be set to NONE to use OS authentication. To use password file authentication, the value should be either EXCLUSIVE or SHARED.

4.    What information is available in the alert log files?

The alert log store information about block corruption errors, internal errors, and the nondefault initialization parameters used at instance start-up. The alert log also records information about database start-up, shutdown, archiving, recovery, tablespace modifications, rollback segment modifications, and the data file modifications.

5.    Which parameter value is use to set the directory path where the alert log file is written?

The alert log file is written in the BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST directory. This directory also records the trace files generated by the background processes. The USER_DUMP_DEST directory has the trace files generated by user sessions. The CORE_DUMP_DEST directory is used primarily on UNIX platforms to save the core dump files. ALERT_DUMP_DEST is not a valid parameter.

6.    Which SHUTDOWN option requires instance recovery when the database is started the next time?
    

SHUTDOWN ABORT requires instance recovery when the database is started the next time. Oracle will also roll back uncommitted transactions during start-up. This option shuts down the instance without dismounting the database.

7.    Which SHUTDOWN option will wait for the users to complete their uncommitted transactions?

When SHUTDOWN TRANSACTIONAL is issued, Oracle waits for the users to either commit or roll back their pending transactions. Once all users have either rolled back or committed their transactions, the database is shut down. When using SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE, the user sessions are disconnected and the changes are rolled back. SHUTDOWN NORMAL waits for the user sessions to disconnect from the database.

8.    How do you make a database read-only?

To put a database into read-only mode, you can mount the database and open the database in read-only mode. This can be accomplished in one step by using STARTUP OPEN READ ONLY.

9.    Which role is created by default to administer databases?

The DBA role is created when you create the database and is assigned to the SYS and SYSTEM users.

10.     Which parameter in the ORAPWD utility is optional?

The parameter ENTRIES is optional. You must specify a password file name and the SYS password. The password file created will be used for authentication.


11.    Which priviledge do you need to connect to the database, if the database is started up by using STARTUP RESTRICT?

RESTRICTED SESSION privilege is required to access a database that is in restrict mode. You can start up the database in restrict mode by using STARTUP RESTRICT, or change the database to restricted mode by using ALTER SYSTEM ENABLE RESTRICTED SESSION.

12.    At which stage of the database start-up is the control file opened?

The control file is opened when the instance mounts the database. The data files and redo log files are opened after the database is opened. When the instance is started, the background processes are started.

13.    User SCOTT has opened a SQL * Plus session and left for lunch. When you queired the V$SESSION view, the STATUS was INACTVE. You terminated SCOTT?s session in V$SESSION?

When you terminate a session that is INACTIVE, the STATUS in V$SESSION will show as KILLED. When SCOTT tries to perform any database activity in the SQL *Plus window, he receives an error that his session is terminated. When an ACTIVE session is killed, the changes are rolled back and an error message is written to the user?s screen.

14.    Which command will ?bounce? the database-that is, shut down the database and start up the database in a single command?

STARTUP FORCE will terminate the current instance and start up the database. It is equivalent to issuing SHUTDOWN ABORT and STARTUP OPEN.

15.     When performing the command SHUTDOWN TRANASACTIONAL, Oracle performs the following tasks in what order?

1) wait for all user transactions to complete; 2) closes all sessions; 3) performs a checkpoint; 4) closes the data files and redo log files; 5) dismounts the database; and 6) terminates the instance.

SHUTDOWN TRANSACTIONAL waits for all user transactions to complete. Once no transactions are pending, it disconnects all sessions and proceeds with the normal shutting down process. The normal shut down process performs a checkpoint, closes data files and redo log files, dismounts the database, and shuts down the instance.

16.     How many panes are there in the Enterprise Manager console?

There are four panes in the Enterprise Manager console: Navigator, Group, Jobs, and Events.

The Navigator pane displays a hierarchical view of all the databases, listeners, nodes, and other services in the network and all their relationships.

The Group pane enables you to graphically view and construct logical administrative groups of objects for more efficient management and administration.

The Jobs pane is the user interface to the Job Scheduling System, which can be used to automate repetitive tasks at specified times on one or multiple databases.

The Events pane is the user interface to the Event Management System, which monitors the network for problem events.


17.    Using SQL*Plus, list two options which show the value of the parameter DB_BLOCK_SIZE?

The SHOW PARAMETER command (SHOW PARAMETER
DB_BLOCK_SIZE or SHOW ALL) will show the current value of the parameter. If you provide parameter name, its value is shown; if you omit the parameter name, all the values are shown. SHOW ALL in SQL *Plus will display the SQL *Plus environment settings, not the parameters.

18.    When you issue the command ALTER SYSTEM ENABLE RESTRICTED SESSION, what happens to the users who are connected to the database?

If you enable the RESTRICTED SESSION when users are connected, nothing happens to the already connected sessions. Future sessions are started only if the user has the RESTRICTED SESSION privilege.

19.    Which view has information about users who are ghranted SYSDBA or SYSOPER privilege?

A dynamic view of V$PWFILE_USERS has the username and a value of TRUE in column SYSDBA if the SYSDBA privilege is granted, or a value of TRUE in column SYSOPER if the SYSOPER privilege is granted.

20.    Which DB administration tools are included in the DBA Studio Pack?

The DBA Management Pack is a set of tools integrated with the OEM, which helps administrators with their daily routine tasks. These tools provide complete database administration, via GUI tools (vs. SQL *Plus), and can be accessed by using the OEM, through DBA Studio, or by individually accessing each tool.

The DB Studio Pack includes Instance Manager, Schema Manager, Storage Manager, and Security Manager.

Instance Manager allows you to startup or shut down an instance; modify parameters; view and change memory allocations, redo logs, and archival status; age resource allocations and long-running sessions.

Schema Manager allows you to create, alter, or drop any schema object, including advanced queries and Java-stored procedures. You can clone any object.

Storage Manager allows you to manage tablespaces, data files, rollback segments, redo log groups, and archive logs.

Security Manager allows you to change the security privileges for users and roles, and create and alter users, roles, and profiles.




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